Novyj-Svet_Z00107-e1456998094227Известно, что древнейшими обитателями Крыма были тавры, которые обители в основном в горах на таврическом побережье. В 1928 году археологи обнаружили остатки поселения I в. до н. э. в ущелье “Адамово Ложе” на вершине горы "Кораул-Оба" в районе поселка Новый Свет. Архиологи там нашли лестницу закрученную в спираль, каменные ядра для метания из пращи, заплывшую кладку небольших помещений, керамику и другие предметы, которые позволяют приписать их к дикой таврской цивилизации. Есть специалисты, которые полагают, что здесь мог располагаться знаменитый храм Девы Артемиды. По легенде, в этом храме служила жрица Ифигения, известная дочь царя Агамемнона. И действительно, есть в этом месте некое ощущение загадки... У этого народа был чрезвычайно развит культ богини Девы. По преданиям, этой богине в жертву тавры приносили пленных врагов. Они украшали их головами ограждения вокруг домов. Греки, соприкоснувшиеся с культурой тавров в период колонизации Крыма, также переняли поклонение этой богине. Самый распространенный крымский миф об Ифигении дошедший в пересказах до наших дней, который своими корнями уходит в древнюю Грецию (VII-VI вв. до н. э.).: Многочисленное греческое войско собралось в поход на Трою, дул противный ветер, этот ветер послала богиня Артемида в наказание царю Агамемнону за то, что тот убил ее прекрасную лань. За это царь должен был принести в жертву богине свою дочь, прекрасную Ифигению. В последний миг Артемида сжалилась и подменила Ифигению ланью, а девушку перенесла в далекую страну и сделала ее жрицей в храме Девы. “В Авлиде я мужами на алтарь возложена ... меч занесен над жертвой, но волею богини на костре в тот миг меня незримо лань сменила. (Еврипид, 414 г. до н. э.)”. Жрица участвовала в человеческих жертвоприношениях. Однажды в бухте возле храма появился корабль пришельцев. Два молодых человека были взяты таврами в плен и приведены к жрице для совершения грозного обряда. “Один из вас будет жертвой богине, а другой отвезет от меня весточку на родину, бросайте жребий”, - сказала жрица. И тут неожиданно она узнала в одном из юношей своего брата Ореста. Вместе придумали они план, как освободить Ифигению и отвезти ее домой. “Статуя богини осквернена и ее необходимо омыть в море”, - сказала жрица таврам. Ей удалось их обмануть. И вот уже корабль мчит их на родину. По возвращении Ифигения стала жрицей Артемиды в храме, построенном на берегу моря в Аттике, недалеко от Афин. Позднее сюжет нашел отображение в трагедии Еврипида “Ифигения в Тавриде”, и в сотнях произведений за период XVII-XX вв.

173 thoughts on “Тавры: древнейшие обитатели Крыма

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