Затерянный Афинеон

screenshot__2016-03-03_12:23:11Древний античный город Афинеон, упоминается в нескольких источниках древних авторов. Но, по причине слишком приблизительно указанного расстояния, все еще остается предметом споров археологов. Один из древних авторов Арриан (131—137 гг. н. э.) отмечает: «запустевшую гавань скифотавров на расстоянии 200 стадий к западу от Феодосии, покинутую ко II в. н. э.». Следующий анонимный перипл в середине VI в. н. э. сообщает название «запустелой гавани скифотавров или Афинеон...там незапертая гавань для судов», от которой до Феодосии также 200 стадий, а в южном направлении “от Афинеона до Лампады (см. мыс Плака) 60 стадиев или 80 миль, там стоянка для кораблей...” Стадий по разным подсчетам составляет от 180 до 193 м. Таким образом, расстояние составляет 36 км. К западу от Феодосии на этом расстоянии находится Судак. То есть можно с уверенностью искать место затерявшегося города на юго-восточном побережье Крымского полуострова в районе Судакской бухты. Скимн Хиосский, самый древний географ, который пишет о крымском побережье, просто упоминает Афинеон, добавляя, что скифы владели всей округой от города Афинеона до Китея. Изыскания ученого-археолога исследовавшего Крым в 1831-1834 гг. Фредерика Дюбуа де Монпере по этому поводу: “От Феодосии до Афинеона на расстоянии 200 стадий Арриан помещает «пустынный порт тавроскифов», как он определяет Афинеон, тем самым свидетельствуя, что этот город, где пребывали скифы во времена Скимна (то есть за сто лет до Р.Х.), был заброшен во времена императора Адриана. Я убежден, - пишет он - я не сомневаюсь, что в самые отдаленные времена древний Афинеон возвышался там, где сегодня мы видим руины Судака. Этому важному порту скифов ни одно место не соответствовало более, нежели Судак.” И в этом он не одинок, как и многие исследователи археолог приурочивает к Судаку античное название Афинеон, опираясь на античные свидетельства. В подтверждение этой версии в окрестностях Судака действительно обнаружены следы пребывания человека в эпоху палеолита, бронзы, остатки таврских поселений и целый погребальный комплекс (90 дольменов и 6 огромных менгиров высотой 2,8-3,1 м) в долине у мыса Меганом, название которого как будто в подтверждение этого факта в переводе с греческого Большое селение. В районе крепости - остатки поселений IV в. до н.э., клады боспорских монет IV в. до н. э. - III- IV вв. н. э. Кроме того, Судакская бухта вполне соответствует описанию древних авторов как спокойная гавань для судов. Впрочем этому критерию соответствует и бухта Коктебеля с городищем западнее Карадага (Отузы). Все зависит от того какую меру давать стадию. Если учесть, что 200 стадий равно 35—42 км и принять во внимание характер каботажного плавания (в обход всех мысов), то это может соответствовать расстоянию между Феодосией и Карадагом. А. Фабр помещал этот порт на месте средневекового Тепсеня близ устья балки Кордонная. Не исключает такой привязки местоположения Афинеона и В. П. Бабенчиков. Однако он пишет, что «...утверждать этого мы не можем, поскольку никаких следов античного, скифского или таврского поселения пока ни здесь, ни поблизости не обнаружено» [4, ]. Ближайшее расположение таврских памятников обнаружены в районе Карадага и Эчкидага (более чем в 10 пунктах), и все они удалены от берега моря на 1-2 км и более (подробнее см. Археология и история Карадага). Кстати, в Судаке трудами людей неравнодушных к истории и культуре Крыма создана одноименная организация «Благотворительный фонд «АФИНЕОН», основной целью которого является поиск затерявшегося города и содействие охране и популяризации историко-культурного наследия большого Судака. Так что есть вероятность найти древний Афинеон и наконец разрешить многовековой спор. Для любителей азартных игр, лотереи и казино будет полезно узнать Гослото отзывы реальных людей. К примеру, человек изучал эту тему в течение месяца и сделал подробный доклад о Столото и Гослото на сайте dadanov.ru. Денег он не выиграл, но на примере его опыта можно сделать полезные выводы.

257 thoughts on “Затерянный Афинеон: Древний античный город

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