Крымский полуостров издревле привлекал на свои просторы народы из Европы и Азии. Вслед за прибывшими на полуостров с материковой части современной Украины неандертальцами, примерно 40 тысяч лет назад, здесь появились кроманьонцы, которые сравнительно быстро увеличивали количественный состав полуострова. Однако ничего неизвестно об их этнической принадлежности. Первый народ, имя которого нам известно, жители раннего железного века - киммерийцы (IX в. до н. э. -VIII в. до н. э.). Это имя дошло до нас благодаря появлению письменности: впервые упоминает о киммерийцах в своих произведениях «Одиссея» и «Илиада» греческий поэт Гомер. По описанию Гомера, киммерийцы, или, как он их называет, «доители кобылиц» и «млекоеды», жили на краю света в условиях постоянного тумана. «Отец истории» Геродот (V в. до н. э.) оставил ценные сведения о периоде обитания киммерийцев в Крыму. Всего до нашего времени дошли девять свитков (книг), принадлежащих перу Геродота и имеющих общее название «История». Каждая книга носит имя музы, четвертая из них - «Мельпомена» -полностью посвящена описанию Северного Причерноморья. Северное Причерноморье - это территория, находящаяся севернее Черного моря (Крымский полуостров и юг Украины). Геродот рассказывает о том, что киммерийцы населяли северный берег Черного моря. Этому есть подтверждение в географических названиях - область Киммерия, Боспор Киммерийский, поселение Киммерик и т. д. В то время, когда из Азии в Крым шли скифы, киммерийцы совещались: покинуть свои земли или воевать. К сожалению, решение не было принято, мало того, сторонники разных мнений взялись за оружие, и началось кровопролитие. Те, кто остался в живых после этой бойни, похоронили своих соплеменников и ушли в Переднюю Азию. Из письменных источников известно о многочисленных военных конфликтах с ассирийцами, мидийцами, в Лидии и Урарту. По описанию современников, киммерийцы были жестокими и беспощадными воинами. Не .гнушались предательством, изменой, жили войной, несли с собой смерть и разруху. Скифы, которых боялись киммерийцы, настигли их в Передней Азии и остановили киммерийскую агрессию. Появившихся около Синопа киммерийцев примерно в 600 году до нашей эры разбил лидийский царь Алиатт. С тех пор о киммерийцах ничего не известно. Завершая знакомство с киммерийцами, необходимо обратить внимание на некоторые спорные вопросы, над решением которых до сих пор бьются исследователи. Некоторые из них, возможно, придется решать вам. Например, точно неизвестно место их расселения: некоторые исследователи считают, что они жили только в Северном Причерноморье, другие допускают также и Кавказ. Есть мнение, что киммерийцы никогда не жили в Крыму, а лишь Совершали сюда набеги, базируясь на территориях современного Ирана. Кроме того, есть мнение, что киммерийцы - это название передового отряда скифов и как народ они вообще не существовали. До нас дошли три слова на киммерийском языке-Теушпа, Лигдамис (Тугдамме) и Сандакшатру. Это имена киммерийских царей. Исходя из их звучания, лингвисты относят киммерийский язык к иранской группе индоевропейской языковой семьи. Помимо письменных сведений, в которых киммерийцы предстали в качестве жестоких воинов, ученые черпают сведения из археологии. Из открытых двух сотен погребений, оставленных киммерийцами, свыше 15 обнаружены в степной части Крыма. В период, когда у киммерийцев только стали зарождаться первые признаки государственности, дальнейшее их развитие прервали скифы.

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83 thoughts on “Крым — Таврида: Киммерийцы

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