Историческое воссоединение бутылки и пробки — начало эпохи выдержанных вин. Клиенты винных магазинов и гости ресторанов все чаще обращают внимание не только на вкус самого вина, но и на его укупорку — на пробку. Ведь так, по их мнению, делали испокон веков. Но мало кто знает, что массово закупоривать стеклянные бутылки пробкой начали лишь в середине XVII века, а также о том, как это повлияло на развитие мирового виноделия. Материалы — стекло и пробку — люди действительно освоили с незапамятных времен. В Месопотамии найдены стеклянные бусы, датируемые серединой III тысячелетия до нашей эры. Особенности пробкового дуба, произрастающего исключительно в Средиземноморье, первыми оценили египтяне. Однако встретиться стеклу и пробке суждено было намного позже. В Древней Греции и Риме, которые переняли традицию виноделия у Ближнего Востока, основной тарой были глиняные амфоры — крупные и достаточно прочные. Их замазывали глиной либо затыкали промасленной тряпкой. Посте падения Римской империи вино «перекочевывает» из глиняной амфоры в деревянную бочку, которую использовали германские и кельтские племена. Тысячу лет она выполняла функцию тары, как для хранения, так и для продажи вина. Бочка удобна в быту — она прочная, ее можно катить, транспортировать в телегах по грунтовым дорогам и в трюме корабля в неспокойных водах. Уже тогда знали, что бочка обогащает и укрепляет вкус вина, но не подозревали о том, что вино выигрывает и от выдержки в бутылке. По правде говоря, о выдержке вообще не задумывались — далеко не все вина тех времен были качественно способны на какую-либо выдержку. Их стремились выпить или продать сразу после производства. Важную лепту в историю бутилирования вина внес Кенельм Дигби. В 1630-х годах он наладил в Англии производство первых прочных бутылок, выплавленных с помощью угля, а не дров. До этого бутылки были хрупкими и имели очень неудобную форму — лампочки. Первым пробку и бутылку воссоединил великий винодел из Шампани, монах-бенедиктинец Пьер Периньон. Совершенствуя качество своих тихих вин (именно их), он экспериментировал с различными методами укупорки. В итоге остановил свой выбор на пробке как наиболее эластичном и подходящем для этой цели природном материале. Неудивительно, что идейными вдохновителями бутилирования вин были те, кто делал виноградный напиток лучше других. Ведь это позволяло, во-первых, обезопаситься от подделок — выплавить клеймо на бутылке гораздо сложнее, чем выжечь его на бочке. Во-вторых, собрать вина урожаев разных годов и затем продать дороже, чем просто молодое вино. Бордосцы давно знали, что их вина достойны лучшей участи, чем быть выпитыми в первые годы после производства. Но, повинуясь требованиям английского вкуса, они выдерживали вина в небольших барриках из французского дуба объемом 225 л. Это делало невозможным длительное хранение: чем меньше бочка, тем больше соприкосновение ее содержимого с дубом, в результате вино сильнее окисляется, и это его убивает. Виноделы Бордо охотно стали бутилировать свои вина. Очень быстро родилась новая уникальная система винной торговли, известная как En Primeur. Ее суть в том, что покупателю предоставляется возможность попробовать вино непосредственно на следующий год после сбора урожая. Если человека устраивают качество и вкус, он платит наперед, а через два-три года это же вино ему поставляют в бутылках. En Primeur в Бордо существует до сих пор — это одно из самых ожидаемых винных событий года. Уже в начале XVIII века практика розлива вин в стеклянные бутылки и их укупорка пробкой стала распространяться по всем винодельческим регионам Европы. Историческое воссоединение бутылки и пробки ознаменовало начало эпохи выдержанных вин, что кардинально повлияло на принципы мировой виноторговли. Что бы было, не начнись эта эпоха? Позволю себе провести параллель с сырами. В Украине не сложилась традиция выдерживать сыры, как, например, во Франции. Сравните разнообразие вкусов французских сыров и украинских. Надеюсь, мысль ясна.

76 thoughts on “Историческое воссоединение бутылки и пробки

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